DLLR's Division of Labor and Industry

 

Employment of Minors Fact Sheet

 

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GENERAL INFORMATION

A minor under the age of 14 may not be employed or permitted to work.

Minors 14 through 17 years of age may only work with a work permit. This permit must be in the employer's possession before the minor is permitted to work.

Applications for work permits are available in high schools throughout the State.

Certain activities are not considered employment for purposes of this law if performed outside of the prescribed school day and the activity does not involve mining, manufacturing or hazardous occupations. The activities include:

  1. Farm work performed on a farm.
  2. Domestic work performed in or about a home.
  3. Work performed in a business owned or operated by a parent or one standing in the place of a parent.
  4. Work performed by non-paid volunteers, in a charitable or non-profit organization, employed with the written consent of a parent of one standing in the place of a parent.
  5. Caddying on a golf course.
  6. Employment as an instructor on an instructional sailboat.
  7. Manufacturing of evergreen wreaths in or about a home.
  8. Delivery of newspapers to the consumer.
  9. Work performed as a counselor, assistant counselor, or instructor in a youth camp certified under the Maryland Youth Camp Act.
  10. Hazardous work performed by non-paid volunteers of a volunteer fire department or company or volunteer rescue squad who have completed or are taking a course of study relating to fire fighting or rescue and who are 16 years of age or older.

The following may be used as proof of age for purposes of issuing a work permit:

  1. Birth Certificate
  2. Baptismal Certificate
  3. School Record
  4. Valid Maryland Driver's License
  5. Any official government document attesting to the age of the minor.

Special permits may be issued to minors of any age to be employed as a model, performer, or entertainer. The applications and permits are available only from the Baltimore office of the Division of Labor and Industry.

Exceptions to hours and occupations may be granted by the Commissioner of Labor and Industry. Applications for exceptions should be addressed to the Commissioner giving explicit details.

Restrictions under the child labor provisions of the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act may be greater than State Standards. In all cases, the higher or more restrictive standard prevails. Information on Federal Standards is available from the Baltimore office (410) 962-2265 and the Hyattsville office (301) 436-6767 of the U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division.

PERMISSIBLE HOURS OF EMPLOYMENT

Minors 14 and 15 years of age may not be employed or permitted to work more than:

  1. 4 hours on any day when school is in session.
  2. 8 hours on any day when school is not in session.
  3. 23 hours in any week when school is in session for five days.
  4. 40 hours in any week when school is not in session.

A minor 14 or 15 years of age may not be employed or permitted to work before 7:00 a.m. or after 8:00 p.m. A minor may be employed or permitted to work until 9:00 p.m. from Memorial Day to Labor Day.

The hours worked by a minor enrolled in a bona fide work-study or student-learner program when school is normally in session may not be counted towards the permissible hours of work prescribed above.

Minors 16 and 17 years of age may spend no more than 12 hours in a combination of school hours and work hours each day. They must also be allowed at least 8 consecutive hours of non-work, non-school time in each 24-hour period.

Minors 14 through 17 years of age may not be employed or permitted to work more than 5 hours continuously without a non-working period of at least ½ hour.

OCCUPATIONS FORBIDDEN MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE

Certain occupations are declared to be hazardous by the U.S. Secretary of Labor and have been adopted by reference by the Commissioner of Labor and Industry for the State of Maryland. Minors 14 and 15 years old are forbidden to be employed at these occupations. Minors 16 and 17 years of age are also forbidden to be employed at these occupations with certain exceptions.

  1. Occupations in or about plant or establishments manufacturing or storing explosives or articles containing explosive components.
  2. Occupations of motor-vehicle driver and outside helper.
  3. Coal-Mine occupations.
  4. Logging occupations and occupations in the operation of any sawmill, lath mill, shingle mill, or cooperage-stock mill.
  5. Occupations involved in the operation of power -driven woodworking machines.
  6. Occupations involving exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations.
  7. Occupations involved in the operation of elevators and other power-driven hoisting apparatus.
  8. Occupations involved in the operation of power-driven metal forming, punching, and shearing machines.
  9. Occupations in connection with mining, other than coal.
  10. Occupations involving slaughtering, meat-packing or processing, or rendering.
  11. Occupations involved in the operation of certain power driven bakery machines.
  12. Occupations involved in the operation of certain power- driven paper products machines.
  13. Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products.
  14. Occupations involved in the operation of circular saws, band saws, and guillotine shears.
  15. Occupations involved in wrecking, demolition, and ship- breaking operations.
  16. Occupations involved in roofing operations.
  17. Occupations in excavation operations.

In addition to the hazardous occupations as declared by the U.S. Secretary of Labor and adopted by the Commissioner of Labor and Industry, the following occupations are forbidden minors under 18 years of age:

Occupations in, about, or in connection with:

  1. Blast furnaces.
  2. Docks or wharves, other than marinas where pleasure boats are sold or served.
  3. Pilots, firemen, or engineers on any vessel or boat engaged in commerce.
  4. Railroads.
  5. Erection and repair of electrical wires.
  6. Any distillery where alcoholic beverages are manufactured, bottled, wrapped or packed.
  7. The manufacturing of dangerous or toxic chemicals or compounds.
  8. Cleaning, oiling or wiping of machinery.
  9. Any occupation forbidden by any local, state or federal law.
  10. Any occupation which after investigation by the Commissioner is deemed injurious to the health and welfare of the minor.

A minor may not be employed to transfer monetary funds in any amount between 8 p.m. and 8 a.m. or in any amount over $100.00 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. unless that minor is the child of the owner or operator or the funds have been received in payment of goods or services delivered by the minor.

AREAS OF EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTED FOR MINORS 14 AND 15 YEARS OF AGE

  1. Manufacturing, mechanical or processing occupations including occupations in workrooms, workplaces or storage areas where goods are manufactured or processed.
     
  2. Operation, cleaning or adjusting of any power-driven machinery other than office machines.
     
  3. Occupations in, about or in connection with (except office or sales work not performed on site):
    1. scaffolding
    2. construction
    3. brickyard
    4. lumberyard
    5. airports
    6. railroads
    7. boats engaged in navigation or commerce after investigation.
    8. acids
    9. dyes
    10. gases
    11. lye
    12. occupations causing dust or gases in injurious quantities
    13. any occupation deemed injurious by the Commissioner